Category Archives: Stock Market

Emerging Stock Market Risk Report Update

The following report provides an update on some of the metrics I use to classify market risk. The word classify is more appropriate as I think that in essence you cannot forecast risk but rather attempt to adjust to it into a timely fashion. Clearly risk would not be a risk if you could forecast it accurately. However as there is generally some degree of persistence in risk regimes, using a dynamic classification may be a useful approach for portfolio rebalancing and hedging. In this report I use the CBOE Emerging markets ETF Volatility Index (VIX Emerging markets) as a measure of Emerging stock markets risk. The same methodology can be successfully applied to other inputs. Feel free to contact me at Pierre@argonautae.com for more information on the subject.

In my approach I recognise that the nominal level of implied volatility is a crude metric of risk therefore I also use two other measures. The VIX Volga, a measure of uncertainty of risk and the ShockIndex a measure of market dislocation. VIX Volga is simply the volatility of the VIX Emerging markets over a given period. This measure highlights how uncertain and unstable the level of risk has become. Though positively correlated to the level of the VIX Emerging markets the VIX Emerging markets Volga is not necessarily dependent on it. You can have a high level of volga whilst the VIX Emerging markets is trading at rather innocuous levels. This is not a trivial observation as the leverage undertaken by market participants tends to be an inverse function of market volatility which implies a greater vulnerability when volatility becomes uncertain at low levels and therefore cannot be accurately budgeted fo r. The ShockIndex is the ratio between the Volga and VIX at the beginning the historical window chosen to evaluate the Volga. It quantifies sharp changes and acceleration in risk levels. Historically it has proven to be a good classifying measure for market event risks.

The below charts shows those three measures both relative to a time axis and their historical distribution. The red lines are the 95% confidence intervals, the purple line the median. The blue line highlight the current level. The VIX Volga and ShockIndex in this report are evaluated over a period of 14 days. The medians and 95% confidence intervals are calculated over the full history going back to 1990 though the charts shows only the recent years.

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At close of business the 2016-11-15 the VIX Emerging markets was trading at 24.4 at the 60.4 percentile. The 14-day VIX Emerging markets Volga was estimated at 25.6 its 84.9 percentile and the Emerging markets shockindex at 1.1 or its 86.1 percentile.

The above charts are useful, however their visualisation is quite limiting. On the one hand we need quite a few charts to present the data on the other hand it is difficult to show the full VIX history going back to 1990 as this would make the charts unreadable. Therefore clustering and aggregating the whole data into a single chart should be useful to the end user. To answer this I use a mapping technique developed by Kohonen in the 1980′. It uses an unsupervised neural network to re-arrange data around meaningful clusters. Though computationally complex is a practical way to summarise multidimensional data into a low (usually 2) dimensional system.

The below chart shows how the VIX price history was split into 4 distinct clusters. Those clusters where computed not only as a function of the VIX level but also as a function of the other variables, namely VIX volga and Shockindex.

Since 03/2011 the VIX Emerging markets traded 52 % of the time in Cluster 1, 36 % in Cluster 2, 9 % in Cluster 3 and 4 % in Cluster 4. Overall the layering provided seems quite intuitive as the increase in risk and time spent in each cluster points toward what would generally be expected from market risk regimes ranging from low to high risk.

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In the chart below we zoom on the various regimes within which the VIX has been trading for the current year. so far it traded 64 % of the time in Cluster 1, 36 % in Cluster 2, 0 % in Cluster 3 and 0 % in Cluster 4.

plot of chunk ytdriskchart

Finally the below chart shows a Self Organising Map of the above mentioned risk metrics. The data has been grouped and colored as a function of four clusters of increasing market risk regimes. Obviously as shown on the map, the minimum level of volatility pertains to cluster 1 and the highest to cluster4. The current regime and its progression from 21 days ago is also highlighted on the map.

plot of chunk SOM_chart

Always happy to discuss any of the above, feel free to reach me at: Pierre@argonautae.co.uk

USDJPY and the Nikkei….

The below chart shows the cumulative changes in both the USDJPY and the Nikkei and clearly this is a tight relationship nowadays….though clearly as discussed in a previous post this has not always been the case….

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The rolling 6-month correlation confirms that the relationship has been positive though time varying…..and below significant critical threshold

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The below plot is a bi-density chart of the USDJPY versus the Nikkei. the contour lines delimit the empirical joint distribution. The yellow line is the best fit derived from a quantile regression (akin to the historical fair value). The dotted red lines delimit the quantiles for the USDJPY. The bold red cross hair lines show where both the USDJPY and the Nikkei are trading at the most recent point.

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US MUTUAL FUND FLOWS REPORT UPDATE

Wed Jun 01 20:21:38 2016

Fund flows are important as they reflect the general investor preference for a specific asset class given current and expected economic conditions and market risk. They may also highlight non-sustainable market positioning. The ICI in the US tracks about 98% of the inflows and outflows in US mutual funds and makes its data freely available on its website. The following is a summarised report of the data it publishes every Wednesday. The first charts shows the cumulative inflows/outflows in each of the asset classes buckets since 2007

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During the month of May we have seen flows of US$ -14.5Bn in Domestic equities,US$ -0.404Bn in international equities, US$ -0.618Bn in Hybrid products,US$ 7.66 Bn in taxable bond funds and US$ 7.19Bn in non taxable bond funds.

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The Charts below shows the distribution of the US$ -205Bn that have flowed into US$ Mutual funds over the last 12-month.

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The below charts show the monthly inflows/outflows for each type of fund and plot them both within their 95% confidence intervals and also relative to their historical distribution. This provides a level of information in respect of how “out of line” or not the current month inflows/outflows may be relative to their past history. In the distribution charts The current month is highlited in blue whereas the vertical red lines represent the 95% confidence intervals.

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The chart below plot the inflows/outflows T-statistics for each of the funds cathegories considered. The Map chart provides information for period ranging from 2 years to 3 months.The greater the square the more important the inflows (green) outflows(red) over a given period.

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Canadian Stock Market Risk Report Update

The following report provides an update on some of the metrics I use to classify market risk. The word classify is more appropriate as I think that in essence you cannot forecast risk but rather attempt to adjust to it into a timely fashion. Clearly risk would not be a risk if you could forecast it accurately. However as there is generally some degree of persistence in risk regimes, using a dynamic classification may prove a useful approach for portfolio rebalancing and hedging. In this report I use the S&P/TSX 60 VIX® index (VIXC) which estimates the 30-day volatility of the Canadian stock market implied by the near-term and next-term options on the S&P/TSX 60 index. The VIXC methodology uses S&P/TSX 60 index options, VIXC is a good proxy of investor sentiment for the Canadian equity market: the higher the index, the greater the risk of market turmoil. A rising index therefore reflects the heightened fears of investors for the coming month. VIXC also gives an indication of whether options are relatively cheap or expensive, as the higher the implied volatility, the higher option premiums are. The same methodology can be successfully applied to other inputs. Feel free to contact me at pollux@argonautae.com for more information on the subject.

In my approach I recognise that the nominal level of implied volatility is a crude metric of risk therefore I also use two other measures. The VIXC Volga, a measure of uncertainty of risk and the ShockIndex a measure of market dislocation. VIXC Volga is simply the volatility of the VIXC over a period of 21 days. This measure highlights how uncertain and unstable the level of risk has become. Though positively correlated to the level of the VIXC the VIXC Volga is not necessarily dependent on it. You can have a high level of volga whilst the VIXC is trading at rather innocuous levels. This is not a trivial observation as the leverage undertaken by market participants tends to be an inverse function of market volatility which implies a greater vulnerability when volatility becomes uncertain at low levels and therefore cannot be accurately budgeted for. The ShockIndex is the ratio between the Volga and VIXC at the beginning the historical window chosen to evaluate the Volga. It quantifies sharp changes and acceleration in risk levels. Historically it has proven to be a good classifying measure for market event risks.

The below charts shows those three measures both relative to a time axis and their historical distribution. The red lines are the 95% confidence intervals, the purple line the median. The blue line highlight the current level. The VIXC Volga and ShockIndex in this report are evaluated over a period of 14 days. The medians and 95% confidence intervals are calculated over the full history going back to 2009.

plot of chunk riskchart

At close of business the 2016-05-12 the S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index was trading at 16.4 at the 51.7 percentile. The 14-day S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index Volga was estimated at 23 its 85.7 percentile and the shockindex at 1.5 or its 86.8 percentile.

The above charts are useful, however their visualisation is quite limiting. On the one hand we need quite a few charts to present the data on the other hand looking at the full S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index history somehow reduce the information granularity. Therefore clustering and aggregating the whole data into a single chart should be useful to the end user. To answer this I use a mapping technique developed by Kohonen in the 1980′. It uses an unsupervised neural network to re-arrange data around meaningful clusters. Though computationally complex is a practical way to summarise multidimensional data into a low (usually 2) dimensional system.

The below chart shows how the S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index price history was split into 4 distinct clusters. Those clusters where computed not only as a function of the S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index level but also as a function of the other variables, namely S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index volga and Shockindex.

Since 2009 the S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index traded 21 % of the time in Cluster 1, 52 % in Cluster 2, 20 % in Cluster 3 and 7 % in Cluster 4. Overall the layering provided seems quite intuitive as the increase in risk and time spent in each cluster points toward what would generally be expected from market risk regimes ranging from low to high risk.

plot of chunk cluster_chart

In the chart below we zoom on the various regimes within which the S&P/TSX 60 VIX Index has been trading for the current year. so far it traded 68 % of the time in Cluster 1, 12 % in Cluster 2, 4 % in Cluster 3 and 16 % in Cluster 4.

plot of chunk ytdriskchart

Finally the below chart shows a Self Organising Map of the above mentioned risk metrics. The data has been grouped and colored as a function of four clusters of increasing market risk regimes. Obviously as shown on the map, the minimum level of volatility pertains to cluster 1 and the highest to cluster4. The current regime and its progression from 21 days ago is also highlighted on the map.

plot of chunk SOM_chart

Always happy to discuss any of the above, feel free to reach me at: pollux@argonautae.com

US MUTUAL FUND FLOWS REPORT UPDATE

Thu May 12 22:34:40 2016

Fund flows are important as they reflect the general investor preference for a specific asset class given current and expected economic conditions and market risk. They may also highlight non-sustainable market positioning. The ICI in the US tracks about 98% of the inflows and outflows in US mutual funds and makes its data freely available on its website. The following is a summarised report of the data it publishes every Wednesday. The first charts shows the cumulative inflows/outflows in each of the asset classes buckets since 2007

plot of chunk cumulative

During the month of May we have seen flows of US$ -2.36Bn in Domestic equities,US$ -0.649Bn in international equities, US$ -0.308Bn in Hybrid products,US$ 2.03 Bn in taxable bond funds and US$ 1.5Bn in non taxable bond funds.

plot of chunk month to date
The Charts below shows the distribution of the US$ -199Bn that have flowed into US$ Mutual funds over the last 12-month.

plot of chunk distribution

The below charts show the monthly inflows/outflows for each type of fund and plot them both within their 95% confidence intervals and also relative to their historical distribution. This provides a level of information in respect of how “out of line” or not the current month inflows/outflows may be relative to their past history. In the distribution charts The current month is highlited in blue whereas the vertical red lines represent the 95% confidence intervals.

plot of chunk flowdistribution

The chart below plot the inflows/outflows T-statistics for each of the funds cathegories considered. The Map chart provides information for period ranging from 2 years to 3 months.The greater the square the more important the inflows (green) outflows(red) over a given period.

plot of chunk flowmap

FTSE Break Analysis…

In the following I us an R package BFAST designed to detect structural breaks in time series. The script Iteratively detects breaks in the seasonal and trend component of a time series. The first chart shows the various break and fitted regressions. The second chart shows the deviations from the regression lines and 95% interval of confidence. This could be used as an overbought/oversold indicator. Anyway, just work in progress…so any input / suggestions are always welcome as usual. Feel free to contact me at:Pierre@argonautae.co.uk

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US Stock Market Risk Report Update…

The following report provides an update on some of the metrics I use to classify market risk. The word classify is more appropriate as I think that in essence you cannot forecast risk but rather attempt to adjust to it into a timely fashion. Clearly risk would not be a risk if you could forecast it accurately. However as there is generally some degree of persistence in risk regimes, using a dynamic classification may be a useful approach for portfolio rebalancing and hedging. In this report I use the VIX as a measure of global financial market risk. The same methodology can be successfully applied to other inputs. Feel free to contact me at Pierre@argonautae.com for more information on the subject.

In my approach I recognise that the nominal level of implied volatility is a crude metric of risk therefore I also use two other measures. The VIX Volga, a measure of uncertainty of risk and the ShockIndex a measure of market dislocation. VIX Volga is simply the volatility of the VIX over a given period. This measure highlights how uncertain and unstable the level of risk has become. Though positively correlated to the level of the VIX the VIX Volga is not necessarily dependent on it. You can have a high level of volga whilst the VIX is trading at rather innocuous levels. This is not a trivial observation as the leverage undertaken by market participants tends to be an inverse function of market volatility which implies a greater vulnerability when volatility becomes uncertain at low levels and therefore cannot be accurately budgeted fo r. The ShockIndex is the ratio between the Volga and VIX at the beginning the historical window chosen to evaluate the Volga. It quantifies sharp changes and acceleration in risk levels. Historically it has proven to be a good classifying measure for market event risks.

The below charts shows those three measures both relative to a time axis and their historical distribution. The red lines are the 95% confidence intervals, the purple line the median. The blue line highlight the current level. The VIX Volga and ShockIndex in this report are evaluated over a period of 14 days. The medians and 95% confidence intervals are calculated over the full history going back to 1990 though the charts shows only the recent years.

plot of chunk riskchart

At close of business the 2016-04-12 the VIX was trading at 15.6 at the 34.8 percentile. The 14-day VIX Volga was estimated at 13.6 its 46.6 percentile and the shockindex at 0.8 or its 61.3 percentile.

The above charts are useful, however their visualisation is quite limiting. On the one hand we need quite a few charts to present the data on the other hand it is difficult to show the full VIX history going back to 1990 as this would make the charts unreadable. Therefore clustering and aggregating the whole data into a single chart should be useful to the end user. To answer this I use a mapping technique developed by Kohonen in the 1980′. It uses an unsupervised neural network to re-arrange data around meaningful clusters. Though computationally complex is a practical way to summarise multidimensional data into a low (usually 2) dimensional system.

The below chart shows how the VIX price history was split into 4 distinct clusters. Those clusters where computed not only as a function of the VIX level but also as a function of the other variables, namely VIX volga and Shockindex.

Since 1990 the VIX traded 48 % of the time in Cluster 1, 39 % in Cluster 2, 11 % in Cluster 3 and 2 % in Cluster 4. Overall the layering provided seems quite intuitive as the increase in risk and time spent in each cluster points toward what would generally be expected from market risk regimes ranging from low to high risk.

plot of chunk cluster_chart

In the chart below we zoom on the various regimes within which the VIX has been trading for the current year. so far it traded 52 % of the time in Cluster 1, 29 % in Cluster 2, 19 % in Cluster 3 and 0 % in Cluster 4.

plot of chunk ytdriskchart

Finally the below chart shows a Self Organising Map of the above mentioned risk metrics. The data has been grouped and colored as a function of four clusters of increasing market risk regimes. Obviously as shown on the map, the minimum level of volatility pertains to cluster 1 and the highest to cluster4. The current regime and its progression from 21 days ago is also highlighted on the map.

plot of chunk SOM_chart

Always happy to discuss any of the above, feel free to reach me at: Pierre@argonautae.co.uk

Sailing toward the blue sea of tranquility: US Stock Market Risk Report Update.

The following report provides an update on some of the metrics I use to classify market risk. The word classify is more appropriate as I think that in essence you cannot forecast risk but rather attempt to adjust to it into a timely fashion. Clearly risk would not be a risk if you could forecast it accurately. However as there is generally some degree of persistence in risk regimes, using a dynamic classification may be a useful approach for portfolio rebalancing and hedging. In this report I use the VIX as a measure of global financial market risk. The same methodology can be successfully applied to other inputs. Feel free to contact me at Pierre@argonautae.com for more information on the subject.

In my approach I recognise that the nominal level of implied volatility is a crude metric of risk therefore I also use two other measures. The VIX Volga, a measure of uncertainty of risk and the ShockIndex a measure of market dislocation. VIX Volga is simply the volatility of the VIX over a given period. This measure highlights how uncertain and unstable the level of risk has become. Though positively correlated to the level of the VIX the VIX Volga is not necessarily dependent on it. You can have a high level of volga whilst the VIX is trading at rather innocuous levels. This is not a trivial observation as the leverage undertaken by market participants tends to be an inverse function of market volatility which implies a greater vulnerability when volatility becomes uncertain at low levels and therefore cannot be accurately budgeted fo r. The ShockIndex is the ratio between the Volga and VIX at the beginning the historical window chosen to evaluate the Volga. It quantifies sharp changes and acceleration in risk levels. Historically it has proven to be a good classifying measure for market event risks.

The below charts shows those three measures both relative to a time axis and their historical distribution. The red lines are the 95% confidence intervals, the purple line the median. The blue line highlight the current level. The VIX Volga and ShockIndex in this report are evaluated over a period of 14 days. The medians and 95% confidence intervals are calculated over the full history going back to 1990 though the charts shows only the recent years.

plot of chunk riskchart

At close of business the 2016-03-04 the VIX was trading at 16.9 at the 43.3 percentile. The 14-day VIX Volga was estimated at 19.1 its 72.5 percentile and the shockindex at 0.9 or its 66.3 percentile.

The above charts are useful, however their visualisation is quite limiting. On the one hand we need quite a few charts to present the data on the other hand it is difficult to show the full VIX history going back to 1990 as this would make the charts unreadable. Therefore clustering and aggregating the whole data into a single chart should be useful to the end user. To answer this I use a mapping technique developed by Kohonen in the 1980′. It uses an unsupervised neural network to re-arrange data around meaningful clusters. Though computationally complex is a practical way to summarise multidimensional data into a low (usually 2) dimensional system.

The below chart shows how the VIX price history was split into 4 distinct clusters. Those clusters where computed not only as a function of the VIX level but also as a function of the other variables, namely VIX volga and Shockindex.

Since 1990 the VIX traded 57 % of the time in Cluster 1, 30 % in Cluster 2, 10 % in Cluster 3 and 2 % in Cluster 4. Overall the layering provided seems quite intuitive as the increase in risk and time spent in each cluster points toward what would generally be expected from market risk regimes ranging from low to high risk.

plot of chunk cluster_chart

In the chart below we zoom on the various regimes within which the VIX has been trading for the current year. so far it traded 59 % of the time in Cluster 1, 21 % in Cluster 2, 19 % in Cluster 3 and 0 % in Cluster 4.

plot of chunk ytdriskchart

Finally the below chart shows a Self Organising Map of the above mentioned risk metrics. The data has been grouped and colored as a function of four clusters of increasing market risk regimes. Obviously as shown on the map, the minimum level of volatility pertains to cluster 1 and the highest to cluster4. The current regime and its progression from 21 days ago is also highlighted on the map.

plot of chunk SOM_chart

Always happy to discuss any of the above, feel free to reach me at: Pierre@argonautae.co.uk

Back to China ?

Whatever the market being traded, there always will be a a question being asked at one moment: How far can this thing go ? Clearly not an easy question to answer as this will invariably depends on factors that are partly unknown or difficult to estimate, such as fundamentals, market positioning or market risk amongst others. The first part is obviously to assess how atypical the move experienced in the given instrument is. This report aims to contribute to this.

The below chart shows the SSE COMPOSITE over the period of July 1997 to March 2016 . On the 02 March 2016 it was trading around 3021.

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In the below I plot the previous 125 days against other similar historical periods that would have closely matched the recent history. The data has been normalised so as to be on the same scale. The chart shows the latest 125 days in black, and overlay similar historical patterns in grey. It Also shows what has been the price path for the following 125 days as well as the observed quartiles.

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Finally I plot the last 125 days and a trend forecast derived from an ARIMA(2,1,3) model as well as the 95% confidence intervals. The ARIMA model is fitted to the past 625 historical values whilst ignoring the last 125 days, therefore we can look at the recent price path against the trend forecast and its confidence intervals to gauge how (a)typical the recent move has been.

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You say oil….I say Tullow !

It seems that oil has been bottoming around 30 for a while….could be time to look at those “oilers” again…So here a quick analysis of the relationship between the share price of Tullow Oil Plc price and the GBP Oil price

The below chart shows the cumulative percentage return both for the Tullow Oil Plc price and the GBP Oil price . Clearly the relationship has been positive over time.

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The rolling 52-week correlation confirms that though time varying, has been strongly positively correlated.

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The below plot is a bi-density chart of the Tullow Oil Plc Share price versus the GBP Oil price. The contour lines delimit the empirical joint distribution. The blue line is the best fit derived from a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing. The dotted red lines delimit the quantiles for the Tullow Oil Plc price. Whilst depicting the direction of the relationship, this chart aims also to answer the question: Does the Tullow Oil Plc share price tend to appreciate/depreciate more depending on which level GBP Oil price is trading. The cross-hair shows where the stock trade relative to the GBP Oil price
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Finally I compute a granger causality test over a rolling period of 52-week in order to investigate the possibility of a one step ahead lead / lag relationship between Tullow Oil Plc price and the GBP Oil price share price. The two below charts show the rolling P Values of the test for both the share causing the Tullow Oil Plc price and vice versa.

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